Process-orientation is thinking about processes in a holistic way that will allow actions, operations and production of value in the company to be better understood.  Introducing this system of work to a company requires the identification of processes, ie the analysis of the activities and their qualification.  Below are the goals of process identification highlighted by Gare Cokins in 1994:

  • Determining what processes are carried out in the given unit
  • Indication of activities carried out within individual processes
  • Description of the course of individual processes
  • Definition of links between processes
  • Identification of areas involved in the implementation of processes and their executors
  • Classifying the processes in accordance with the adopted criteria
  • Definition of products and their recipients
  • Setting a timetable of the process
  • Performing the appropriate parameterization of the described processes

Classification of processes

There are several classifications of processes in the field of research.  The most popular classifications are:

  1. Classification according to M. Porter:


  1. Basic:
  • Logistics
  • Manufacturing of products
  • Marketing
  • “After-sales” services
  1. Auxiliary
  • Company management
  • HR Management
  • Supply management
  • Improvement of products and services
  1. Classification according to R.S Kaplan and R. Cooper:
  2. Innovative – creation of offers
  3. Operational – manufacturing of products, services and delivery to customers
  4. After-sales services – customer service upon delivery of the product or service
  1. Process Classification Model according to American Productivity Quality Center (APQC):
  2. Operational (basic core activities)
  • Vision and Strategy
  • Development and management of products and services
  • Marketing and sales of products or services
  • Procurement, processing of orders, delivery of products
  • Customer service management
  1. Auxiliary (support for operational processes)
  • Organization and HR Management
  • Information Technology Management
  • Financial Management
  • Acquisition, construction, property management
  • Environmental management and Health & Safety
  • Management of external relations
  • Knowledge management, improvements

Check: SII